Category Archives: raspberrypi

Raspberry Pi: how to read pin status without shutting it down in Python

From now on, sometimes I would like to publish results of internet searching… that I did NOT find. The results I wanted and I found after just after a long wandering.


 

Raspi-PGB001_reasonably_small When you work with Raspberry Pi, and you are controlling something via output port, say a relay, you can have set a status on it, i.e. you can have put it HIGH, with the usual

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
GPIO.setmode(GPIO.GPM)
GPIO.setup(25, GPIO.OUT)
GPIO.output(25, HIGH)

Then, some times after, you are willing to know if pin 25 is HIGH o LOW. You have forgot it, or you are not you, but another person willing to know that. Problem: if you set pin 25 as input, you suddenly switch off it. So DO NOT DO this, in the same or another program:

GPIO.setup(25, GPIO.IN)
print GPIO.input(25)

because you will always get a False, at least with default pullups.

Fortunately the answer is simple: just set that pin as output… but read it!

GPIO.setup(25, GPIO.OUT)
print GPIO.input(25)

and you will get a True or a False depending on the real status.

Posting 1-wire/RasPi data to Xively without third-party libraries – the simple way

Recently I connected to Xively (you know, the site accepting your environmental data, keeping it and letting you manage it for free – roughly speaking) with Raspberry. I just wanted to send some temperature data with the very famous  1-wire solution. Other help here.

There is a plenty of info about what software to use. I lately fell in love with python, so the language had to be that. If you look for help, you will find that Xively itself and Tinkerforge gives you some handy… pieces of python, and the same with the library owfs  but:

  • Xively gives a library with a full API, very useful but too large for my needs
  • Tinkerforge’s library is based – obviously and rightly – on the hardware they sell. Too large again.
  • OWFS shares – IMHO – the same problems as the Xively one: too large
  • all of them need to be downloaded, installed, etc.
  • really do we need a library? At the end of the day we just must send a PUT call to the HTTP(S) server

So I ended up with a personal version based on the – anyway well done – Tinkerforge version. Mine is “pure python”, using just and only the normal python installation. Probably you still will want to work to refine the code, but that could be considered a good starting point. Here it is:

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import socket
import sys
import time
import math
import logging as log
import httplib
import json
import threading

log.basicConfig(level=log.INFO)

MIN_TEMP = -100

def read_temperature():
    # the following code will be different in your case
    tfile = open("/sys/bus/w1/devices/28-0000046ca58d/w1_slave") 
    text = tfile.read()
    tfile.close()

    lines = text.split("\n")

    if lines[0].find("YES") > 0:
        temp = float(lines[1].split(" ")[9][2:])
        temp /= 1000
        return temp
    return MIN_TEMP - 1

class Xively:
    HOST = 'api.xively.com'
    AGENT = "my-agent"
    FEED = 'FEED-ID'
    API_KEY = 'unreadeable-code-given-by-xively'

    def __init__(self):
        self.items = {}
        self.headers = {
            "Content-Type"  : "application/x-www-form-urlencoded",
            "X-ApiKey"      : Xively.API_KEY,
            "User-Agent"    : Xively.AGENT,
        }
        self.params = "/v2/feeds/" + str(Xively.FEED)

        self.upload_thread = threading.Thread(target=self.upload)
        self.upload_thread.daemon = True
        self.upload_thread.start()

    def put(self, identifier, value):
        try:
            _, min_value, max_value = self.items[identifier]
            if value < min_value:                 
                min_value = value             
            if value > max_value:
                max_value = value
            self.items[identifier] = (value, min_value, max_value)
        except:
            self.items[identifier] = (value, value, value)

    def upload(self):
        while True:
            time.sleep(10 * 60) # Upload data every ... min
            if len(self.items) == 0:
                continue

            stream_items = []
            for identifier, value in self.items.items():
                stream_items.append({'id': identifier,
                                     'current_value': value[0],
                                     'min_value': value[1],
                                     'max_value': value[2]})

            data = {'version': '1.0.0',
                    'datastreams': stream_items}
            self.items = {}
            body = json.dumps(data)

            try:
                http = httplib.HTTPSConnection(Xively.HOST)
                http.request('PUT', self.params, body, self.headers)
                response = http.getresponse()
                http.close()

                if response.status != 200:
                    log.error('Could not upload to xively -> ' +
                              str(response.status) + ': ' + response.reason)
            except Exception as e:
                log.error('HTTP error: ' + str(e))

#========================
if __name__ == "__main__":

    log.info('Start')

    xively = Xively()
    i = 0
    while True:
        i += 1
        print('reading ' + str(i))
        temp = read_temperature()
        xively.put('temperature', temp)

        time.sleep(60)

    log.info('End')